Ética de los medios de comunicación después de la COVID-19: repensar la disciplina a la luz del caso de las teorías conspirativas antivacuna

E. Joaquín Suárez-Ruíz

Resumo


Un fenómeno de particular relevancia internacional paralelo a la pandemia de COVID-19 ha sido la ‘infodemia’ ligada a ella, especialmente las teorías conspirativas antivacuna. Una de las disciplinas que potencialmente podría ofrecer posibles soluciones a los riesgos surgidos de la infodemia es la Ética de los medios de comunicación (EMC). No obstante, las producciones vinculadas a esta disciplina han sido sumamente escasas en los últimos meses. La hipótesis de este artículo reside en que dicha escasez es indicio de un problema metateórico que va más allá de la situación actual. Para confirmar dicha hipótesis se analizarán investigaciones sobre el vínculo entre sesgos cognitivos y teorías conspirativas, así como también cómo dichos sesgos se relacionan con la posverdad y las fake news. Según se argumentará, el problema metateórico de la EMC, correlacionado con la escasez de producciones en los últimos meses de particular urgencia para nuestro contexto, se debe a un descuido de las características propias de la cognición intuitiva derivado de la metodología
tradicional en las Éticas aplicadas, a saber, la aplicación de criterios normativos que suponen un modelo racionalista de la formación
de juicios morales.

Palavras-chave


ética de los medios de comunicación; teorías conspirativas; sesgo cognitivo; posverdad; fake news; juicio moral

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